Today in this article on Features of Indian Administration, we are going to read about the administration system, the working structure of our Indian administration, and see how our administration system evolves with the passage of time.

What is Administration?

The administration is the Non-Political bureaucratic machinery of the government for implementing its laws and policies in action, e.g.…the collection of revenue, maintenance of law and order, running schools and hospitals, etc.

The administration of independent India became the tool for achieving the objectives laid down in our constitution which came into force on 26th Jan 1950.

The Indian Administration stands committed to enforce the lofty ideals of social, economic, political justice along with equality, liberty, unity, and fraternity…… as laid down in our constitution.

Features of Indian Administration
Features of Indian Administration

Main Features of Indian Administration – 

We classify features of the Indian administration on the basis of historical, modern and its developing nature.

Historical Features of the Indian Administration

1.COLONIAL LEGACY-

Indian Administration has a long historical background.

“The Indian Administrative system as it exists today is a product of two different sets of influences; the British colonial administrative traditions and the ideals of a democratic welfare state which was constitutionally adopted in India after independence.

The Indian administrative system has been affected by the British system in many ways. Even today the units of administration remain unchanged like division, district, sub-division, and Tehsil. An administrator had the right to look after all these administrative units from division to tehsil, and these officers respectively were called ‘Commissioner’, Collector(IAS), Sub-Divisional Officer(SDO) and Tehsildar.

2. UNIFORMITY IN ADMINISTRATION-

A distinctive feature of the Indian Administrative system is the remarkable measure of UNIFORMITY that prevails through administration in all the States of India.

Right from the level of the village to the state administration, the same general features are visible in their organizations.

The land revenue administration, health administration, educational administration, police administration, etc. have been carried out in the states on the pattern which prevails at the centre.

Thus, there is uniformity at all the levels in the administrative set-up of the states and union government.

3. Administrative Reforms –

Another feature of Indian administration is the administrative reforms. The need for improving the administrative machinery of government in any political system is universally admitted.

It is particularly so with regard to India where we find mounting dissatisfaction with the working of governmental agencies and administration.

The appointment of the Administrative Reforms Commissions in 1966 was an important landmark in the history of administrative reforms in this country.

The commission was appointed to look into various aspects of administration, such as the machinery of the government of India and its procedure of work, machinery for planning at national, state and local levels, center-state relations, financial administration, district administration, etc.

Developing Features of the Indian Administration

1. POLITICAL NEUTRALITY IN ADMINISTRATION-

Neutrality means that the public servant should be free from the bondage of political thoughts or views in his public life.

According to the rules of Civil Services Conduct in India, there is a restriction on government employees to participate in political activities.

In India, the rule prohibits government employees from active participation in political activities, except for the limited RIGHT OF VOTING.

2. WELFARE ADMINISTRATION-

The constitution of India has laid down the foundations of a welfare state. Due to this, the scope of administration has increased in the welfare field.

Independent India was facing a number of social and economic problems like- Illiteracy, Unemployment, Poverty, Disease, Hunger, etc. These problems needed drastic measures to be taken by the administrators by implementing their new innovative policies.

Thus, administration in India is not only a law and order administration but also a WELFARE ADMINISTRATION.

3. DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION-

This is a matchless features of Indian Administration. It is an effort making-step to bring the economic, social, and political changes in society.

Here importance is given to the development of administration. Development Administration is related to planning, policy-programs, and projects.

4. RESERVATION SYSTEM-

It is the feature of the Indian Administrative system to provide a provision of RESERVATION for the SC’s and ST’s and OBC’s in Indian Administrative service, so, that the backward and weaker sections of the society are not deprived of proper representation in Administrative Services.

5. Administrative Tribunals 

Modern Indian administration is witnessing a significant increase in the powers of administration. Administrative tribunals provide the mechanism for it. These tribunals managed by technical experts, with flexibility in operations, informality in procedures have gained importance in the adjudication process and are known to provide a new type of justice – public good oriented justice.

Some of the important tribunals in India are – Central Administrative Tribunals (CAT), Railway Rates Tribunals, Industrial Tribunals, Claims Tribunals, etc.

6. Generalists vs Specialists –

One important feature of Indian public administration is that it accords primacy to the generalist’s administrators. The members of both the IAS and the State civil services are trained as ‘generalists’ on the basis of British traditions.

As generalists, they are expected to be equipped with the knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes to make policy recommendations not only in the areas of administration but also in scientific, technical, and educational matters as well.

With the addition of new and varied activities, the administration has greatly expanded. With the addition of new and varied activities, the administration needs skilled and specialized manpower to manage them.

This has led to specialization and an increase in the role of specialists in administration. However, in the official hierarchy, the generalist class enjoys superiority over the technocrats or the specialists.

Modern Features of the Indian Administration

1. DEMOCRATIC DECENTRALISATION-

Decentralization means the transfer of powers from an upper level to a lower level.

Democracy is the foundation of the Indian Administration. The institutions of local self-government are alive in every city or town in the form of Municipal Corporations and Municipal Committees.

These look after some of the important local services and provide for schools, parks, roads, garbage disposal, etc.

Also, there is a 3 tier structure of the Panchayati-Raj institution going right down to the village levels i.e. Gram Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti, Zila Parishad.

These institutions help to percolate democracy to grass root level in Indian Administration. Thus, they are also known as the system of DEMOCRATIC DECENTRALISATIONN.

2. INDEPENDENT JUDICIARY-

Features of Indian Administration
Features of Indian Administration

The framers of our constitution have sought to establish an independent judiciary free from the influence of executive and legislative.

The judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts once appointed cannot be removed from services by the executive before the age of retirement.

Following the American practice, the judiciary in India has been vested with the power to declare any law passed by the legislature- NULL OR VOID if it does not conform to the provisions, spirit, and basic structure of the Indian Constitution.

3. ADMINISTRATION FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC JUSTICE-

The constitution has delegated the responsibility of the administration to implement different types of policies to achieve the complicated objectives of socio-economic justice and public welfare.

Thus, the basic objective of the Indian Administration is to establish a public welfare state as well as socio-economic justice as directed by the INDIAN CONSTITUTION.

4. E-GOVERNANCE-

Another unique features of Indian administration is the E-Governance or we can say Electronic administration is the new buzzword in today’s world. Indian Administration has also adopted and incorporated this into its system. The Information and Technology (IT) revolution has taken the country by storm.

E-Governance is “Anytime, Anywhere”. The objective of E-Governance is to offer all government related services ‘ONLINE’.

Indian Administration is going full out to adopt this in all its departments and become more CITIZEN FRIENDLY ADMINISTRATION.

5. RIGHT TO INFORMATION-

In the context of government functioning in the present era of economic liberalization, ‘OPENNESS’ means giving everyone the right to have access to information about the various decisions taken by the government and the reasoning behind them.

RTI brings efficiency, accountability, and transparency in the administration.

6. INCREASING POWERS-

The next features of Indian administration is the increasing powers.

Over the years there has been enormous growth in the powers, functions, and influence of the civil services (Administration). With the assumption of new functions and responsibility by the government since independence, the importance of the administration has grown.

Our Administration is no longer a mere Police and Revenue official. He is engaged in a larger variety of development activities and is involved in implementing thousands of projects.

CONCLUSIONFeatures of Indian Administration

We can conclude that all the Features of Indian Administration play an important role in the functioning of the government. All these features are of great significance and generally developing in nature. All features exist for the welfare of our society.

Features of Indian Administration FAQ –

What is Administration?

The administration is the Non-Political bureaucratic machinery of the government for implementing its laws and policies in action, e.g.…the collection of revenue, maintenance of law and order, running schools and hospitals, etc.

What are the main features of indian administration?

We classify features of the Indian administration on the basis of historical, modern and its developing nature.
Historical Features of Indian Administration
Modern Features of Indian Administration
Developing Features of Indian Administration

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