Introduction – Powers and Functions of Lok Sabha
Powers and Functions of Lok Sabha – The lower house of parliament is called Lok Sabha or House of the people.
It is also called the Popular house because its members are elected directly by the people. As it is clear from its name it represents the people of India. It is a powerful and fully democratic house of the union parliament and its similar to the British house of commons.
1. Composition of Lok Sabha:
In the beginning, the total number of the member of the Lok Sabha was fixed at 500. But later in 1956 by the 7th amendment, the membership was increased to 520.
And again in 1963 by 14th amendment it was raised to 525. In 1973 according to the 31st amendment, it was again raised to 545. This continues to be its present strength and this number has been used till 2026.
2. Method of election of the Members of Lok Sabha:
The members of the Lok Sabha are elected on the basis of Universal adult franchise which means that all citizen who has attained the age of 18 years more have the right to vote in the election of the Lok Sabha. All the members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected through a secret ballot.
3. Qualifications for Membership of the Lok Sabha:
to contest the election to the Lok Sabha a person must have the following qualifications-
1. He should be a citizen of India
2. Should not be less than 25 years of age
3. He should not hold any office of profit
4. He should not be insane or bankrupt
5. He should possess all those qualifications prescribed by the parliament from time to time.
4. Tenure for the Members of Lok Sabha:
The normal term of the Lok Sabha is five years, but the President of India can extend its tenure for a period of one year at a time during an emergency, but fresh elections to the Lok Sabha must be held within six months of the revocation of the emergency.
Powers and Functions of Lok Sabha
5. Salary and allowances for the Members of Lok Sabha:
The members of Lok Sabha get salary and allowances as fixed by the parliament. The salary allowances and pension of members of Lok Sabha are fixed on 1 April 2018. The members of Lok Sabha have entitled to Rupees 1 lakh per month as salary, rupees 70000 and constituency allowance, rupees 60000 as office expenses and 100000 for furniture expenditure and Rupees 16 per kilometer for traveling allowance.
Besides this, the member of Lok Sabha gets the facility of mobile phone, telephone, a residential facility in Delhi, free water, electricity, medical facility, etc.
6. Presiding officer of Lok Sabha:
The speaker is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha. He is elected by the members of Lok Sabha. In the absence of the speaker, the deputy speaker presides over the meeting of the Lok Sabha.
Om Birla is the speaker of the present Lok Sabha.
7. Powers and function of Lok Sabha:
1. Legislative power-
The Lok Sabha together with the Rajya Sabha has the power to frame laws on subjects in the union list, concurrent list, and the residuary subjects.
Although ordinary bill can be introduced in either of two houses of the Parliament, yet almost 95% of the bills are introduced in the Lok Sabha.
In a Joint session due to deadlock, the Lok Sabha dominates the show because of its large membership. Hence the Lok Sabha has a dominant position.
2. Executive powers-
Under article 75(3) of, constitution council of the minister has been made responsible to the House of people that is Lok Sabha. The council of minister remains in office till it enjoys the confidence of the Lok Sabha if, it loses the confidence of Lok Sabha the Council of Ministers shall have to resign.
Thus, the Lok Sabha enjoys the power over life and death of the council of minister.
3. Financial power-
a) The Lok Sabha has a superior position in the financial matter as a money bill can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha.
b) A money bill can only be delayed by the Rajya Sabha for a maximum of 14 days.
If the Rajya Sabha fails to pass the money bill within the 14 days of receiving it, the bill is deemed to have been passed by both of the houses of the Parliament.
c) In case of any dispute as to whether a particular bill is money bill or not the decision of the speaker of the Lok Sabha is final.
Powers and Functions of Lok Sabha
4. Judicial power-
The Lok Sabha possesses the following judicial power-
a) The charges of impeachment against President, Judges of Supreme Court and the High court can be framed in either of two houses by a two-thirds majority of the members present voting.
b) Though the impeachment charges against the Vice President of India by Rajya Sabha, it is essential that regulation is passed by the Lok Sabha also.
c) In case of the violation of the discipline in the Lok Sabha, the members are free to take action against the defaulting members.
5. Amendment power-
A Constitutional Amendment Bill can be introduced in either House of the Parliament. It is deemed to have been passed only when it is passed by both the houses of the parliament in accordance with the provision of Article 368 of the constitution. The Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha can together amend all articles of the Constitution with the exception of those which requires special approval by one half of the state legislature.
6. Approval over the declaration of emergency-
The constitution empowers the Indian President to declare three Types of emergencies.
a. National Emergency- Article 352
b. Constitutional emergency- Article 356
c. Financial emergency -Article 360
But each such a declaration of emergency has to be got approved by both of the houses of parliament.
In case the Lok Sabha dissolved at the time of the declaration of emergency it, has to be approved by the Rajya Sabha.
7. Miscellaneous power-
a. It gives approval to the ordinance issued by the president.
b. It changes the boundary of state, to establish new states and change the name of States.
c. It makes changes in the jurisdiction of the Supreme court and High court according to the provision of the constitution.
d. Revising the salary and allowances of the member of the Parliament.
e. To discuss the report of UPSC Auditor General of India and finance commission etc.
Conclusion- Powers and Functions of Lok Sabha:
It is very evident that despite being the lower house of the Parliament the Lok Sabha is a very powerful house.
The Council of Minister is responsible to the Lok Sabha and not before the Rajya Sabha. They remain in office as long as they enjoy the confidence of the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha full control over the state finances. Hence we can conclude that Lok Sabha is a more powerful chamber.
Powers and Functions of Lok Sabha
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