Directive Principles of State Policy in the Indian Constitution – DPSP are the guiding principles to the state while framing the laws. Directive Principles of state policy (DPSP) are mentioned in Part IV of the Indian Constitution from Article 36 to 51.

Introduction – Directive Principles of State Policy

Article 36 to 51 of the Indian constitution embodies the Directive Principle of State Policy and for these, we are indebted to the constitution of Ireland. The objective of these principles is to establish a social and economic democracy in India.

The purpose of the Directive Principle is also to work as a guide for the future government and the courts.

What is Directive Principles of State Policy in the Constitution?

The Directive Principles of State Policy of India (DPSP) are the guidelines or principles given to the federal institutes governing the state of India, to be kept in reference while framing laws and policies.

Nature of Directive Principles of State Policy

a) Scope of Directive Principle is wide

The Directive Principle of the Indian Constitution deals with every aspect of the national life like the social, economic, political and administrative. They also deal with international peace and amity. Thus, their scope is quite vast.

b) Directive Principle are non-justiciable

Article 37 of the Indian constitution makes it quite clear that the courts of the country cannot order their implementation.

Thus, the responsibility of their implementation lies on the shoulder of the state and not on the courts because Article 37 also mentions that it is the duty of the state to implement the directive principles.

c) Not bound with any particular ideology

The directive principle of state policy are an ideology in themselves and they are not bound with any particular ideology. Their implementation cannot be bound by any ideology.

d) Guiding Principles in law-making

It is the sacred duty of the members of the Indian parliament, state legislative assemblies, and other political wings of the state, to keep the directive principles in view.

They should try to implement these directive principles while making laws.

Directive Principles of State Policy
Directive Principles of State Policy

Directive Principles of State Policy and their Classification

Although, the Indian Constitution has made no classification of the directive principle of state policy, yet keeping in view their nature and objective they may be divided into the following categories –

  • Socialist principles
  • Liberal principles 
  • Gandhian principles
  • International principles

Directive Principles of State Policy in the Indian Constitution

 1. Socialist Principles

In this category, we include those principles the implementation of which will make India a socialist state.

a) Article-38 (STATE TO SECURE A SOCIAL ORDER FOR THE PROMOTION OF THE WELFARE OF THE PEOPLE) – of the Indian Constitution –  the state shall endeavor to formulate such a social system that will secure social, economic and political justice to all in all the sphere of life.

Article-38(2) –  inserted into the constitution by 44th amendment, provides that the states will strive for minimizing the inequalities present in the income of the people, their social status, opportunity, but would also amongst groups of people residing in the different area belonging to different professions.

b)  Article-39 (CERTAIN PRINCIPLES OF POLICY TO BE FOLLOWED BY THE STATE)

According to Article-39(a), the state shall try to formulate its policy in such a manner so as to secure adequate means of livelihood for all its citizens.

According to Article-39(b), the ownership of material resources would be control in such a manner so as to subserve the common good.

According to Article-39(c) 

The economy of the state will be administered in such a manner so that wealth may not yet be concentrated in a few hands and the means of production may not be used against the public interest.

Article-39(d), arrangements will be made to ensure equal pay for equal work both for men and women.

Article-39(e) –

the health of the workers, laborers, men and women and children will not be permitted to be adversely affected.

Besides this, it will also be ensured that the citizens, compelled by their economic needs, do not undertake such works which may not be in accordance with their age or capacity.

Article-39(f) –

inserted by the 42nd constitutional amendment, the state will formulate and execute its policies in such a manner that the children will get opportunities and facilities in a healthy, free and respectable environment.

It will end the exploitation of the children and the youth and will ensure them protection against moral and material degeneration.

Article-39(A) (Equal justice and free legal aid)

inserted by the 42nd constitutional amendment, the state will act in such a manner as to ensure legal provisions which will help in getting justice on the basis of equal opportunities. The state will also make arrangements for the availability of free legal assistance to the economically backward people.

c) Article-41 (RIGHT TO WORK, TO EDUCATION AND TO PUBLIC ASSISTANCE IN CERTAIN CASES)

Article 41 of the Indian Constitution – the state shall within the limits of its economic capacity and development make effective provisions for securing the right to work, right to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness, and other disabilities.

d) Article-42 (PROVISION FOR JUST AND HUMANE CONDITIONS OF WORK AND MATERNITY RELIEF) –  of the Indian Constitution – the state will make provisions for the creation of just and human conditions for work. It will also ensure maternity relief.

e) Article-43 (LIVING WAGE, ETC., FOR WORKERS) – of the Indian Constitution – the state will ensure adequate wages, good life and rest to the laborers. The state will also endeavor to make available to the laborer’s various socio-cultural facilities.

Article-43(A) (PARTICIPATION OF WORKERS IN MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIES)  inserted by the 42nd constitutional amendment, the state will endeavor, either by appropriate legislation or by certain other methods that the workers and laborers participate in the management of business connected with industry or other institutions.

2. Liberal Principles – 

The following directive principle can be included in this category –

a) According to Article-44 (UNIFORM CIVIL CODE FOR THE CITIZEN) of the Indian constitution, the state will endeavor to formulate and implement a Uniform Civil Code for all the people living throughout the territory of India.

b) According to Article-45 (PROVISION FOR FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN) of the Indian constitution, the state shall endeavor to provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14 years.

c) According to Article-47 (DUTY OF THE STATE TO RAISE THE LEVEL OF NUTRITION AND THE STANDARD OF LIVING AND TO IMPROVE PUBLIC HEALTH) – of the Indian constitution, the state will strive to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living. Thus, it will endeavor to improve the health of the people.

d) According to Article-48 (ORGANIZATION OF AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY) of the Indian constitution, the state will strive to organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines. It will also try to maintain and improve upon the breed of animals.

Article-48(A) (PROTECTION AND IMPROVEMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND SAFEGUARDING OF FORESTS AND WILDLIFE) – inserted by the 42nd amendment, the state shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forest and wildlife of the country.

e) According to Article-49(PROTECTION OF MONUMENTS AND PLACES AND OBJECTS OF NATIONAL IMPORTANCE) – of the Indian constitution, the state shall try that the monuments of historical and cultural interest are not mutilated, destroyed but are protected and preserved.

f) According to Article-50 (SEPARATION OF JUDICIARY FROM THE EXECUTIVE) – of the Indian Constitution, the state will try to separate the judiciary from the executive in the case of public service.

3. Gandhian principles

We include in which category those principles which has been under the influence of the views of Gandhiji.

a) According to Article-40 (ORGANISATION OF VILLAGE PANCHAYATS) of the Indian Constitution, the state will strive to organize panchayats in the village and will endow them with such powers that enable them to act as units of self-government.

b) According to Article-43 (LIVING WAGE, ETC., FOR WORKERS) of the Indian Constitution, the state will strive to develop the cottage industry in the rural areas, both on the individual or co-operative basis.

c) According to Article-46 (PROMOTION OF EDUCATIONAL AND ECONOMIC INTERESTS OF SCHEDULED CASTES, SCHEDULED TRIBES AND OTHER WEAKER SECTIONS) – of the Indian Constitution, the state shall promote with special care the educational and economic interest of the weaker section of the people, and, in particular of the scheduled caste and scheduled tribes and shall protect them from social injustice and all form of exploitation.

d) According to Article-47 (DUTY OF THE STATE TO RAISE THE LEVEL OF NUTRITION AND THE STANDARD OF LIVING AND TO IMPROVE PUBLIC HEALTH) – of the Indian Constitution, the state will try to ban the consumption of wine, and other intoxicating drinks and all such commodity which are considered injurious to health.

The state will see that such intoxicants are used only for medicinal purposes.

e) According to Article-48 (ORGANIZATION OF AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY) – of the Indian Constitution, the state will ban the slaughtering of cow and other cattle.

4. International Principles – 

Article-51(PROMOTION OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY)

a)  According to Article 51(a), of the Indian constitution, the state will endeavor to promote international peace and security.

b) According to Article 51(b), of the Indian constitution, the state will strive to maintain just and honorable relations among various states in the world.

c) According to Article 51(c), the state will endeavor to promote respect for international treaties agreement and law.

d) According to Article 51(d),  the state will strive to settle International disputes by arbitration. 

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Directive Principles of State Policy -(FAQ)

What is Dpsp in Constitution?

The Directive Principles of State Policy of India (DPSP) are the guidelines or principles given to the federal institutes governing the state of India, to be kept in reference while framing laws and policies.

Are Dpsp enforceable by law?

Article 37 of the Indian constitution makes it quite clear that the courts of the country cannot order their implementation.

How many types of directive principles are there?

Directive Principles of State Policy have been grouped into four categories – Socialist principles
Liberal principles 
Gandhian principles
International principles

Is Dpsp justiciable?

Directive Principle are non-justiciableArticle 37 of the Indian constitution makes it quite clear that the courts of the country cannot order their implementation.

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